ALD is an industrial, surface controlled, self-limiting layer-by-layer technique for depositing thin films from gaseous phase of the precursors.
The two most important advantages of ALD are excellent conformality and film thickness control at the sub-nanometer level. ALD is an ideal choice for the deposition of functional layers on surface sensitive and active substances due to the controllable nature of the process. Each atomic layer formed in the sequential process is a result of saturated surface controlled chemical reactions, providing advantages over the other thin film deposition technologies.
ALD has enabled many industrial applications to develop and grow and today it is a well-established industrial standard. The range of materials or processes available for ALD today is extensive including, but not limited to, metal oxides, nitrides, sulfides, fluorides, noble metals and polymers. Besides the wide range of materials available for ALD, it is a versatile tool for surface engineering and tailoring the surface properties in applications where multifunctionality is desired. ALD enables deposition of nanolaminates and mixed structures, where the layer of material can be changed abruptly after each step. ALD technology is applicable to various production methods and can also be used for the processing of particles and web materials.